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The Internet of Things (IoT)
Imagine you and an intelligent robot are both before a judge who cannot see you. The judge will guess which of you is the human, and so will live, while the other will die. Both you and the robot want to live. The judge is fair and smart. The judge says: “You must each give me one word from an English dictionary. Based on this word, I will guess who is the human.”
What one word do you choose?
Would it be some lofty spiritual concept like “soul”? Something that reflects your own tastes, like “music”? Or a base bodily function, like “fart”?
This simple thought experiment may seem fanciful, but some cognitive scientists believe that its consideration can help to illuminate our basic assumptions about artificial intelligence while also revealing some surprising insights about our own minds.

After all, automated ‘chat bots’ and language generating machines increasingly employ artificial intelligence to hold conversations with us or write reams of text that we encounter on a daily basis. How can we tell that the customer service representative we are chatting to online, for example, is a real person or a chirpy algorithm? Or if a fictional story was churned out by a machine rather than lovingly crafted by a human writer? Communicative AI is no longer a purely theoretical prospect and we need to be prepared to deal with it.

John McCoy, one of the researchers behind the research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says he was initially inspired by a casual conversation with his colleagues. They were discussing the Turing Test, first developed by British scientist Alan Turing in 1950, that aims to measure whether a machine’s intelligent behaviour is indistinguishable from that of a human.
In the most common formulation, each judge is given a standard chat interface. In each trial, they may be talking to a real human, or a computer chatbot powered by artificial intelligence – and the judge’s job is to guess which it is. If the chatbot manages to fool a pre-determined number of judges, it has passed the Turing Test.

“We wondered what would be the minimal version of the Turing Test that one could come up with,” explains McCoy, before speculating whether it could even be captured in a single word. “Then the question was, what were the words that people would actually say?” It was this question that would ultimately inspire a research paper, published this year in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
In the first experiment, McCoy and his colleague, Tomer Ullman, asked more than 1,000 participants to answer the question above and then analysed the words they produced to find any common patterns.
The top 10 words, in order of popularity, were:
Love (134 responses)
Compassion (33)
Human (30)
Please (25)
Mercy (18)
Empathy (17)
Emotion (14)
Robot (13)
Humanity (11)
Alive (9)

“It was striking how much convergence there was between people,” says McCoy, who is now at the University of Pennsylvania. “They can choose any word they like from a standard English dictionary and yet there’s huge convergence across individuals.”
Consider the word “love” – around 10% of participants chose this word over all of the other hundreds of thousands of possibilities; overall, a quarter of all the participants chose one of the top four words.
In terms of the general themes, they found that words conveying bodily functions (such as “poop&#8221Wink, faith and forgiveness (such as “mercy” or “hope&#8221Wink, emotion (such as “empathy&#8221Wink and food (such as “banana&#8221Wink were the most popular categories.
McCoy and Ullman then performed a second experiment to see how other people would respond to the words generated in the first experiment. Were the most popular items really as successful at conveying a sense of humanity as the original participants had suspected? And if so, which were best?

To find out, the researchers paired the most popular words together in various combinations (such as “human” and “love&#8221Wink and asked another group of participants to determine which, of the two, was most likely to have been generated by a human and which by a computer.

As we saw in the first study, “love” turned out to one of the most successful. But of the choices available, the highest-ranking word was “poop”. It may seem surprising that faeces turns out to be a human shibboleth, but the results suggest that knowingly flouting a taboo and provoking, rather than simply describing, an emotion might be the most straightforward way of conveying your shared humanity. Other, more colourful, terms could also spring to mind.
Some of the other words seen as uniquely human evoked similarly strong emotional responses that went beyond their dictionary definition. “Moist”, for example, or “please”. Others are just enjoyable to say. Try rolling “onomatopoeia” around your mouth a few times.
The reason for this might be a fair reflection of the current state of AI. While bots can now write basic descriptive sentences and even intelligible short stories, they still struggle with humour and sarcasm. Humour, after all, requires a deep understanding of context and the many cultural associations that are embedded in each word.

Besides these whimsical speculations, McCoy suspects that this experiment could prove a useful tool to understand people’s implicit assumptions about other groups of humans. What one word would you choose to prove you are a woman, for instance? Or to prove you are French, or a socialist? In each case, the choices should reveal the qualities that we assume all group members to recognise within themselves, that may be misunderstood or ignored by outsiders.
In the meantime, McCoy has found that the Minimal Turing Test is a useful provocation for further debate about the nature of AI. “It’s been fun to ask eminent psychologists this question, to see them think really, really hard and for them to come back hours later to excitedly change their answer,” McCoy says. “This very simple question just gets you thinking deep thoughts about the human versus the computer and how they communicate.”
His own favourite was deceptively simple. “One of the words I liked was ‘err…’ – that was clever,” McCoy says.
In general, though, it is worth remembering that if you ever do need to prove yourself as a human in a world increasingly run on machines, be crude, and be funny.
David Robson is a senior journalist at BBC Future. He is @d_a_robson on Twitter.
The Internet of Things (IoT)
Consumers can’t buy 5G phones yet. But China is already talking about what comes next: 6G.

Su Xin, head of 5G technology working group at China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said that China is starting research into 6G concepts this year. The country first started looking into 6G in March, making it one of the first countries to do so.

Su said that the actual development of 6G will officially begin in 2020, but commercial use will most likely have to wait until 2030.

The arrival of 5G has been touted as a big deal. It’s not just because it promises to bring fast mobile internet, it should also enable us to connect with machines – like gadgets, industrial machines and autonomous vehicles.

5G is the name of the next-generation wireless technology that promises far faster internet access than 4G. Experts predict it will begin to take off in 2019, enhancing communications among Internet of Things devices.

So what is 6G supposed to bring that 5G can’t, especially for ordinary folks?

For one thing, it could make mobile internet speeds of 1 TB per second mainstream. This means you could download around 100 films in less than a second. (It’s worth noting that researchers at the University of Surrey in England have already achieved that with 5G… but only inside a lab.)

Of course, 2030 is a long way away, so the actual applications of this technology may be hard to imagine. As Verizon executive Andrea Caldini pointed out at this year’s Mobile World Congress, nobody expected Snapchat while developing 4G – it’s the increased speeds that made it happen.

According to Su, 6G could connect our devices more efficiently than 5G, expanding internet coverage to much wider areas.

“5G has three application scenarios: large bandwidth, low latency, and wide connection – I think 6G can achieve better application in all three scenarios,” Su told local media, noting that 6G could increase transmission rates by more than 10 times. “It may revolutionize the structure of the whole wired and wireless network.”

If this sounds vague to you, it’s because there is still no definition for the technology. And according to industry insiders, it is too early to talk about 6G. It took 5G ten years to develop its set of standards, and despite commercial deployment this year, they are still not fully settled. So is 6G even a thing?

Roberto Saracco, professor at the University of Trento in Italy, believes that 5G is still a fuzzy set of promises that will take time, probably ten years, before being fulfilled. As for the next generation of connectivity, “marketing will need 6G as soon as 5G is deployed,” writes Saracco. Researchers will need a term to mark the novelty of what they are doing or to put technologies that do not fit into 5G standards into another box.

The vagueness of the term has not stopped countries to start looking into the concept. Finland’s University of Oulu launched an 6G research program called 6Genesis. Aside from futuristic phrases like “interoperability sensing based ops” and “intelligent personal edge,” one of the applications mentioned on their site is wireless augmented reality/virtual reality.

Though again, it’s worth noting that this might be an application for 5G, judging by Tencent boss Pony Ma’s suggestion that the technology could enable WeChat VR.

The new 6G movement in China could also be a way to rub their tech advancement in other people’s faces. The country is already way ahead of US in deploying 5G, according to Deloitte. Since 2015, China outspent the US by approximately $24 billion in wireless communications infrastructure (with $400 billion more coming) and built 350,000 new cell phone tower sites – while the US is still stuck at less than 30,000.

For more on China tech visit abacusnews.com or subscribe to the newsletter via abacusnews.com/newsletter for the latest China tech news, reviews and product launches.
Copyright (c) 2018. South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved.
Editing by Eileen C. Ang
The Internet of Things (IoT)
World Wide Web inventor plans a new version to bypass big tech companies

Like Dr. Frankenstein, Tim Berners-Lee — creator of the World Wide Web — is disgusted by the monster he unleashed on the world.

“An engine of inequity and division,” he says of the modern web.

But now, Berners-Lee believes he’s created a new, parallel web that will allow users to bypass the flawed behemoths known as Facebook, Amazon and Google.

The open-source project, called “Solid,” is his years-in-the-making mission to decentralize the web by letting users choose where their data are kept, along with who can see and access it.

“Solid changes the current model where users have to hand over personal data to digital giants in exchange for perceived value,” he said in a blog post describing it. “As we’ve all discovered, this hasn’t been in our best interests.”

Essentially, Solid gives users their own internet, he explained in an interview with Fast Company.

“We have to do it now,” Berners-Lee told the site, noting the ongoing revelations of the co-opting of Facebook by hackers and foreign powers. “It’s a historical moment.”

Besides, he continued, “We are in the Solid world now.”

The Oxford-educated Berners-Lee, 63, spent years working on the project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where, along with Oxford, he is a computer-science professor.

Berners-Lee has also developed a startup called Inrupt that launches this week, which aims to offer tools for users to build their own apps on Solid.
The Internet of Things (IoT)
It’s alive! Scientists create ‘artificial life’ on a quantum computer
Here is a sentence that sounds like it’s come fresh off the pages of a Michael Crichton techno-thriller: Scientists have created “artificial life” on a quantum computer for the first time ever. And that could turn out to be kind of a big deal.

The work was achieved by researchers from the University of the Basque Country in Spain. With the aid of an IBM QX4 quantum computer, they created tiny simulated life forms capable of carrying out many of the behaviors seen in real-world life forms — including reproduction, mutation, evolution, and death. They hope that doing so will help researchers to better understand the origins of life and whether it can be explained through quantum mechanics. This is something that has been hypothesized for decades, dating back to Erwin Schrödinger’s influential 1944 book What is Life?

“Our research connects two previously unrelated areas as are artificial life and quantum computing,” Lucas Lamata, one of the researchers on the project, told Digital Trends. “The former is an extensive research field where the aim is to reproduce biological behaviors in artificial systems, while the latter is an area that is growing fast in the past few years and could revolutionize computation and communication. We mainly posed the fundamental question: Which is the smallest physical system that can undergo self-replication and other biological behaviors attributed uniquely to living beings?”

The researchers were interested in whether these behaviors happen at the macroscopic level of a DNA module or at the few-atom level where quantum physics dominates. In their work, simulated “individuals” were represented using two quantum bits, or “qubits.” These are measures of information which can represent one, zero, or any quantum superposition of the two states. Their demonstration suggests that a small quantum system can reproduce biological behaviors and that the quantum principle of “entanglement” plays a crucial role in this possibility.

“We may easily find several applications, still to be developed, around quantum game theory and optimization problems,” Enrique Solano, another researcher on the project, told us. “The latter are a common place for applications in economy, design, aerodynamics, and complex biological systems. The natural merge of this research with artificial intelligence methods will create a novel paradigm for exploring the growth of complexity, an important asset of present and future studies from molecular systems to astrophysical objects and social behaviors.”

A paper describing the work was recently published in the journal Scientific Reports.
The Internet of Things (IoT)
ABD dünyanın en hızlı süper bilgisayarını yaptı

ABD dünyanın en hızlı süper bilgisayarını yaptı
ABD'nin yeni süper bilgisayarı Summit'in (Zirve), bu alanda şu anda dünya lideri olan Çin'in Sunway TaihuLight bilgisayarından iki kattan daha fazla hızlı olduğu açıklandı.
Summit, saniyede 200 trilyon ya da 200 fetaflop hesaplama yapabiliyor.

Şu ana dek dünyanın en güçlü bilgisayarı olan Sunway Taihulight süper bilgisayarının ise 93 petaflop işlem gücü vardı.

Summit ilk olarak astrofizik, kanser araştırmaları ve sistem biyolojisi alanlarında kullanılacak.

Tennessee eyaletindeki Oak Ridge Ulusal Laboratuvarı'nda (ORLN) bulunan bilgisayar IBM ve NVidia'in ortaklığıyla geliştirildi.

Süper bilgisayarlar, özel hesaplama yoğunluklu işler için tasarlanan ve onbinlerce işlemciden oluşan büyük ve pahalı sistemler.

Summit'te 4.608 bilgisayar sunucusu ve 10 petabayt hafıza bulunuyor.

ORLN Direktörü Dr. Thomaz Zacharia, Summit'in daha yapım aşamasında karşılaştırmalı gen çalışmalarında kullanıldığını söyledi.

Zacharia "Kelimenin tam anlamıyla sistemin parçaları birleştirilirken makineyi kullandılar, tekerlekleri takılırken bir yarış arabası sürdüğünüzü düşünün" dedi.

'Oyuna geri döndük '
Geçen yıl yayımlanan dünyanın başlıca süper bilgisayarlarının dökümüne göre ABD dünyadaki 500 süper bilgisayarın 143'üne sahipken, Çin'in 202 süper bilgisayarı bulunuyor.

ABD'nin daha önceki en hızlı süper bilgisayarı Titan, 5. sıradaydı.

ABD Enerji Bakanı Rick Perry "Bir rekabet olduğunu biliyoruz ve sonuca ilk kimin ulaştığı önemli. Amerika'nın oyuna geri dördüğünü böyle güçlü bir şekilde göstermek önemliydi."
The Internet of Things (IoT)
Laptops with 128GB of RAM are here

Brace yourself for laptops with 128GB of RAM because they’re coming. Today, Lenovo announced its ThinkPad P52, which, along with that massive amount of memory, also features up to 6TB of storage, up to a 4K, 15.6-inch display, an eighth-gen Intel hexacore processor, and an Nvidia Quadro P3200 graphics card.
The ThinkPad also includes two Thunderbolt three ports, HDMI 2.0, a mini DisplayPort, three USB Type-A ports, a headphone jack, and an Ethernet port. The company hasn’t announced pricing yet, but it’s likely going to try to compete with Dell’s new 128GB-compatible workstation laptops.
The Dell Precision 7530 and Precision 7730 also feature 4K displays and compatibility with a Quadro and AMD Radeon WX graphics cards. They start at $1,199. All these laptops are VR-ready, of course. Both seem to be enabled through Samsung’s newest memory modules that allow laptop makers to increase capacity and speed without consuming all the power. The days of laptops topping out at 16GB of RAM might be nearing an end, at least once these come to standard consumer devices.
The Internet of Things (IoT)
Dünyanın en büyüğüydü! Microsoft satın aldı

Dünyanın en geniş kaynak kodu havuzu Github, son yıllardaki geliştiricilere verdiği destekle tanınan Microsoft tarafından satın alındı. Github uzun zamandır şirketin CEO'su Satya Nadella'nın hedefindeydi

Bloomberg’in haberine göre Microsoft, dünyanın en çok kullanılan açık kaynak kodu paylaşım platformunu bünyesine kattı. Son yıllarda yazılımcıların favori sitesi haline gelen Github, geliştiricilerin projelerini ve kodlarını depolayıp paylaştığı bir havuz niteliğinde.
İçinde çok büyük bir kaynak kodu koleksiyonu barındıran Github, küçükten büyüğe pek çok geliştirici grubun ilgisini çekiyor. 2015’teki değeri 2 milyar olan platform, son 9 aydır Microsoft’un CEO’su olan Satya Nadella’nın en büyük hedeflerinden biriydi.
Peki Microsoft, Github’u satın alarak ne kazanacak? Öncelikle 26 milyonun üzerinde yazılım geliştiricisine ve onların kodlarına erişim sağlayacak. Uygulamalar bakımından Apple ve Google’a göre çok zayıf olan Microsoft, gelecekte geliştiricilere destek vermeyi ve onları kendi safına katmayı hedefliyor.
The Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT)
Future is Here
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